CRISPR, crispr genome editing system - Part 11

CRISPR gene editing used to genetically modify trees to protect their health

CRISPR gene editing used to genetically modify trees to protect their health | Genetic Literacy Project Researchers at the University of Georgia have used a gene editing tool known as CRISPR/Cas9 to modify the genome of a tree species for the first time. Their research, published recently in the early online edition of the journal New Phytologist, opens the door to more rapid and reliable gene editing of plants. By mutating specific genes in Populus—a genus of deciduous trees that includes poplar, aspen and cottonwood—the researchers reduced the concentrations of two naturally occurring plant polymers. One is called lignin, which traps sugars and starches used for biofuel production inside the tree’s sturdy cell walls. The other is known as condensed...
Read More..

CRISPR Genome Editing – Safer Than You Think

White blood cells
Study shows that CRISPR-Cas 9 genome editing can be perfectly safe in mice. With so much being written on why we should, or shouldn’t, employ CRISPR for germline editing, a new study published in Nature Methods has shown that some of those safety concerns might be easier to overcome than previously thought. A whole-genome study was carried out on the offspring of mice born from an embryo modified using CRISPR-Cas9. Results failed to find significant off-target mutations that could be linked to CRISPR. While variations were identified, none appeared to be in a true off-target site, and were concluded to have arisen spontaneously. “CRISPR technology is much safer than we have been led to believe from studies in cancer cell...
Read More..

The Use of CRISPR on Zebrafish Could Speed Human Gene Function Discovery

crispr image10
The gene editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9, is six times more effective than other techniques at targeting specific DNA sequences in zebrafish, according to a new study from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and published in Genome Research. This discovery, which also demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be used to target and mutate multiple genes at the same time, could speed the discovery of gene function and the identification of disease genes in humans. CRISPR stands for “clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat” and refers to a repeating pattern of DNA sequences that appear regularly in bacterial DNA, according to the NIH. The Cas9 protein is a nuclease, an enzyme that can be used to cut out a specific...
Read More..

Justin Smith, PhD student in genetics about CRISPR

crispr image14
I work on CRISPR.  I had previously worked with the older technologies mentioned in the podcast (which I thought was a pretty good description of CRISPR to non-scientists). Honestly the potential benefits of CRISPR far out weight the dangers, in my opinion.  CRISPR should allow for better disease research, better stem cell therapies, better genetically modified crops, and better understanding of basic genetics, better metabolic engineering for new fuels and materials, etc.  It is a truly revolutionary technology. However, I don’t think it will be possible to engineer warriors or make elite designer babies with CRISPR alone.  First off we do not know nearly enough about how the genome works to do something like engineer warriors.  Even decades from now...
Read More..

CRISPR, the disruptor

crispr image2
Illustration by Sébastien Thibault Three years ago, Bruce Conklin came across a method that made him change the course of his lab. Conklin, a geneticist at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, California, had been trying to work out how variations in DNA affect various human diseases, but his tools were cumbersome. When he worked with cells from patients, it was hard to know which sequences were important for disease and which were just background noise. And engineering a mutation into cells was expensive and laborious work. “It was a student’s entire thesis to change one gene,” he says. Then, in 2012, he read about a newly published technique1 calledCRISPR that would allow researchers to quickly change the DNA of...
Read More..

CRISPR U.S. scientist “thrilled” to receive Spain’s Asturias prize

award crispr1
U.S. biochemist Jennifer Doudna said Thursday that she was “thrilled” to receive the 2015 Princess of Asturias Award for Technical and Scientific Research for developing a technology that allows genes to be edited and nucleic acids to be manipulated with great precision. “This award emphasizes the importance of science in society and for helping improve the human condition. I hope that (this award) inspires the work of the coming generation of scientists,” she told Efe. Doudna and French biochemist Emmanuelle Charpentier, who shared the prize, are pioneers in applying a technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 that acts like a molecular pair of scissors to cut and replace DNA components with great precision. The 19-member prize jury credited Charpentier and Doudna with...
Read More..

CRISPR developers Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, Princess of Asturias Award

award crispr
Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna Source: FPA USPA NEWS – The biochemists Emmanuelle Charpentier (France) and Jennifer Doudna (USA) have been bestowed with the 2015 Princess of Asturias Award for Technical and Scientific Research, as made public in Oviedo by the Jury responsible for conferring said Award. This candidature was put forward by Jerónimo López Martínez, President of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), 2002 Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation. The research carried out by Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna has meant a revolution in biotechnology. They have developed a genome-editing technology that enables the genome to be rewritten and defective genes to be corrected very economically with an unprecedented level of precision. Inspired by the antiviral...
Read More..

US science academies take on human-genome editing

crystal_structure_of_cas9_in_complex_with_guide_rna_and_target_dna
IHM/National Library of Medicine The 1975 Asilomar conference helped set rules for research on DNA.                   The US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) will launch a major initiative to develop guidelines for editing human genomes, they said on 18 May. The initiative follows the April announcement that researchers had used a gene-editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 to remove a mutated gene from a human embryo. The work involved a small number of embryos and was only partially successful, but it has sparked wide debate about the ethics of editing human genomes in ways that can be passed on to future generations. Although researchers and ethicists disagree...
Read More..

CRISPR Mouse Service in Creative Animodel Accomplishes Conditional Knock-in

images (1)
Researchers from the Creative Animodel Institute use CRISPR/Cas genetic regulatory system, manipulating mouse genome with one step into the reporter gene and the conditional allele. Now we just need several weeks rather than a few years time to generate such a complex engineering allele animals and also to construct models of disease or to research gene function using these animals. Creative Animodel Institute said: “We have previously used CRISPR/Cas to mutate gene, but it can not predict the characteristics of these targeted mutations. Now we can define the specificity deletion by two times cutting. We can generate conditional mice one step, easily and very effectively insert DNA fragments of up to 3000 base pairs. In the past, however, we need...
Read More..

Genome Editing Spy Style: Self-destructing DNA with CRISPR

Have you ever watched a spy move and felt yourself craving spy gadgets, such as explosive chewing gum, or a tricked out Aston Martin? Well if you are a genome-engineering scientist you can now get your very own spy gadget – self-destructing DNA! But this cool creation isn’t just to fulfill your 007 dreams, it solves two very real issues: environmental spillover of foreign genetic material and protection of intellectual property. Minimizing spillover is important to help prevent unintended effects of targeted genome editors on surrounding cells. Sadly, traditional DNA removal techniques are quite tedious, time consuming, and expensive to construct. Brian Caliando and Christopher Voigt of MIT decided to tackle this issue by employing the famed CRISPR system to...
Read More..